What does Modern Lemohai sound like?

How people talk on Mohai today

Modern Standard Lemohai has a total of twenty-eight phonemes. Their sounds vary a little according to their phonetic environment. They are arranged in simple syllables.

Vowels

The language has a so-called “pure” vowel system, consisting of five oral and five nasal monophthongs. Nasal vowels are written like their oral counterparts followed by a nasal consonant.

FrontCentralBack
Closei, iN
/i, ĩ/
u, uN
/u, ũ/
Open-Mide, eN
/ε, ɛ̃/
o, oN
/ɔ, ɔ̃/
Opena, aN
/a, ã/
Lemohai vowels

The trailing nasal consonants (n or m) are not sounded independently except when word-final and the next word starts with a vowel.

Where two oral vowels meet, a slight hiatus is sounded between them. So words like Mohai consist of three syllables, not two: /mɔ.’ha.i/. A hiatus is also sounded where two vowels meet across word boundaries.

Vowels keep their full value in all circumstances. In theory, they are never swallowed-up and cannot form diphthongs or triphthongs. In rapid or colloquial speech, diphthongs will sometimes be encountered, though the practice is non-standard.

Front vowels e, eN, i and iN become central vowels /ə, ə̃, ɨ, ɨ̃/ before velar and glottal consonants (g, k, kh, h). So Tekuo is pronounced: /tə.‘ku.ɔ/.

Where two vowels meet in compounding and one is stressed, that vowel is retained and the other deleted.

Where both are stressed or both unstressed, only the second is retained. Where the first word ends in two vowels and the second starts with a stressed vowel, then the last vowel of the first word is again deleted.


Consonants

The language has eighteen consonants. There are three series of stops (voiced, plain and aspirate), along with small sets of fricatives and sonorants.

LabAlvAlvVelGlot
Nasm
/m/
n
/n/
Stopb, p, ph
/b, p, pʰ/
d, t, th
/d, t, tʰ/
g, k, kh
/g, k, kʰ/
Fricz, s
/z, s/
h
/h/
Liql, r
/l, r/
Gld(w
/w/)
y
/j/
w
/w/
Lemohai consonants

Plain stops are aspirated after nasal vowels. This change is reflected in writing on compounding, but not across word boundaries.

H is pronounced /ç/ before front close vowels i or in. When h moves to /ç/, it does not trigger the centralisation of preceding front vowels.

H is not permitted after a nasal vowel. On compounding, h is deleted from this position.

Oral sonorants l, r, y and w are nasalised after nasal vowels. Word-initial r is a trill, /r/, but it is a flap elsewhere.


Suprasegmental Features

Lemohai is a syllable-timed language. Only the following syllable types are allowed:

(C)V(N)

As noted above, the combination VN is a digraph representing a nasal vowel, but the nasal consonant is sometimes sounded as well.

Regular stress falls on the penultimate syllable, i.e. on the penultimate vowel. However, a heavy final syllable (one with a nasal vowel) takes the stress instead. Stress is light and accompanied by a high pitch accent.

Younger speakers employ a limited form of nasal harmony. Where an oral vowel immediately precedes a nasal vowel in the same word, it too is nasalised. The practice is frowned upon by older speakers, who refer to it as “nasal slur”.


Dialects

Thanks to the levelling effects of modern media and education, regional and class-based differences in the modern language are few, though they remain noticeable.

Lemohai has three main dialects: Northern, Southern and Central. The Lemohai spoken overseas is also non-standard. The standard language, as described above, is the language of the upper and middle classes of the capital Orisu. Orisu lies in the central dialect zone.

In working-class speech throughout the island, nasal vowels en and on are sounded in mid position, whilst their oral counterparts remain mid-open (except as indicated below).

Working-class speech in the central zone is distinguished by the pronunciation of the vowel sequences ei and ou as /e/ and /o/ respectively. H has become a glottal stop for some speakers.

The northern dialect has retained some irregular stress from Early Lemohai. It is indicated by an acute diacritic: á, án.

The old phoneme /ŋ/ has been retained and is written ng. It has moved to /n/ elsewhere. H is always pronounced /x/. The dialect shares this last feature with the nearby Lethuri language. Syllabic nasal consonants are permitted in word-initial position.

In the southern dialect, h is always pronounced /h/ and front vowels are never centralised. Open-mid vowels e, en, o and on are raised to close-mid position when unstressed. Dental-alveolar sounds (n, d, t, th, z, s) move to pre-palatal, approximately /ɲ, dʒ, tʃ, tʃʰ, ʒ, ʃ/, before front close vowels i and in*.


Writing System

The Lemohai alphabet is written from left to right in simple, geometric characters. It is a unicase script without separate upper and lower case forms. It is largely phonetic. It is a variant on the Classical Lekuna alphabet which derives in turn from the Pamak script.

Author: David Johnson

Conlanger, writer and activist.

3 thoughts on “What does Modern Lemohai sound like?”

  1. Looks like it’s back to the traditional 28 phonemes set! This time though, I’m settled on it. Presentation has been improved here and there and detail restored to the dialects section. It was recently withdrawn whilst I pondered on it. Here too, the status quo ante has been restored.

  2. This page replaces another which had a tortured history as it wobbled between variations on a core idea. The core idea has only been tweaked this time, but the presentation is very different, hence a new page was deemed necessary.

    The core idea revolves around simple syllables, aspirate stops and nasal vowels. It could be summed up as other-worldly Portuguese.

    I have aimed for a judicious mixture of common sounds and conceptual radicalism. The radicalism includes some unusual gaps. I like the minimalism of the latest version, as it leaves space for variations in dialects and related languages.

    Allophony was developed with help from the Zompist Bulletin Board.

    Several fads came and went on the previous page such as nasal harmony, syllabic nasals and the deletion of one or more stop series. It was also plagued by the great f versus z debate. Diacritics were once used to indicate nasal vowels but proved too fiddly. The simpler VN approach won out.

    The current set of phonemes and allophones embodies some delicate balances and is probably as good as it gets.

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