Some nations and languages of Tekuo

Most of these states and territories are on the north coast of the continent of Aheku and are peopled by Ikhe. Ikhe are one of the three sapient species of Tekuo.

Mohai

Mohai is an island to the north of Aheku. It has an area of 162,350 square kilometres (62,683 square miles), approximately 450 miles by 150. The population stands at 13,280,000. This works out at 82 per square kilometre.

Mohai was the ancient home of the Senduri, before the Dahu arrived. The Dahu conquered much of north-west Aheku. Later, it was absorbed into the Kemba Empire. Mohai attained independence in the early modern era. At this point, Lemohai (an Eastern Dahu language) became the official language and its people became known as the Romohai.

After independence Mohai began to acquire a small Empire of its own which later still formed the basis of the North Aheku Commonwealth (NAC).

Mohai is a unitary state with much devolution, participatory democracy and worker co-operatives. Its social model spread throughout the North Aheku Commonwealth. Lemohai is widely used in the NAC nations as a second language.

There are 12.1 million first-language Lemohai speakers on the island plus a further 3.5 million abroad, making 15.6 mil altogether.

The linguistic minorities on Mohai are: 0.5 mil. Senduri speakers, 0.2 mil. Lepekau speakers and 0.1 million speakers each for Letsuri and Leheiko. 0.2 million people speak other languages.

Senduri is a linguistic isolate. It is a verb-inital language with a trigger alignment. It has seven points of vowel articulation and a set of labio-velar co-articulates: ngm, gb and kp.

Aku Olara

Aku Olara (or just Olara) is an independent Lemohai speaking island nation of 5,260 square kilometres (2,031 square miles). It has a population of 0.5 mil about a quarter of whom live in the capital. It guards its independence jealously and is only an associate member of the NAC.

Aku Mbera

Aku Mbera is a semi-autonomous island ruled by Mohai. Mohai provides defence, foreign policy, currency and supreme court. It also provides an inspectorate to ensure probity in government affairs. In all other respects Mbera is self-governing. The island covers 316 square kilometres (122 square miles) and has a population of 24,000 who are all Lemohai-speaking.

Etsuri

Etsuri is broad peninsula on the north coast of Aheku. It is the nearest foreign state to Mohai which lies to its north and west.

At around 325,256 square kilometres (125,630 square miles), Etsuri has around twice the area of Mohai. It is slightly less densely populated at 78 per square kilometre, so the population is 25,380,000 people.

The people of Etsuri are called the Rohetsuri. They are of Dahu origin and  speak an Eastern Dahu language known as Letsuri. As Mohai was settled from Etsuri, Letsuri is the closest language to Lemohai. Distinctive features of Letsuri include ts, dz and the high central vowels transcribed here as ï and ïn/ïm. There is also an aspirate equivalent of ts, transcribed here as tsh. None of these are present in standard Lemohai.

Like the Romohai, the Rohetsuri were absorbed into the Dahu Empire and then the Kemba Empire before regaining independence in the early modern era. The land then spent a period as part of the Romohai Empire. Modern Etsuri is an independent nation state within the NAC.

Pekau

Pekau is a nation-state on the north coast of Aheku. It lies due south of Mohai, bordering Etsuri to the south and west.

At around 752,829 square kilometres (290,780 square miles), Pekau is larger than Etsuri and Mohai combined. It has 78 people per square kilometre, so the population is 58,700,000.

Pekau is another Dahu nation. Its people are called the Ropekau and they speak an Eastern Dahu language called Lepekau. After Letsuri, this is the next closest language to Lemohai. Distinctive features of Lepekau include the presence of f and the absence of p. It lacks voiced continuants, but has š, c and j (for English sh, ch, j). There is also an aspirate equivalent of c, transcribed here as ch. None of these are present in standard Lemohai.

Like the Rohetsuri, the Ropekau became part of the Dahu Empire and then the Kemba Empire before regaining independence in the early modern era. They then spent a period as part of the Romohai Empire.

Modern Pekau is an independent nation state within the North Aheku Commonwealth (NAC).

Zedun

Zedun is a small state on the north coast of Aheku. It covers 32,585 square kilometres (12,586 square miles) and has a populaton of 3.2 million (98 per square kilometre). It lies south-west of Mohai and west of Pekau.

The Rozedun people were never conquered by the Kemba and so they speak a Western Dahu language. This is called Lezedun.

Distinctive features of Lezedun include seven points of vowel articulation, the presence of ny, ng. It also has š and ž (for English sh and zh). None of these are present in standard Lemohai.

The Rozedun spent time under Ropekau then Romohai rule. Zedun has Lemohai and Lepekau speaking minorities. It was the last part of the Romohai Empire to attain independence, and like most of its neighbours, it is an NAC member-state.

Heiko

Heiko borders Etsuri to the south and east. It covers some 1,682,928 square kilometres (650,030 square miles), making it the largest nation state on the north coast of Aheku. It has a population of 120,255,550 (a mere 71 per square kilometre).

Its people are called the Roheiko. Most of them speak Leheiko, a Kemba language. The Kemba and Dahu languages together form the Dahu-Kemba language family. Heiko has several minority languages, mostly of Kemba stock. Leheiko is best recognised by its long vowels, which it marks with a macron: ā, etc.

During the early modern era, Heiko saw itself as the successor state to the Kemba Empire and was the main power rival to Mohai.

Heiko was once run on centralist and imperialist lines, but it has moved over to the decentralised Mohaian social model and renounced extra-territorial ambitions. This has rendered it a fit socio-economic partner, in the eyes of its Dahu neighbours. Heiko and its allies have therefore been admitted to the North Aheku Commonwealth

Öklan

Across the sea, to the north of Aheku, lies a western arm of the continent of Sempayu. Like much of that continent it is peopled by Koron, another sapient species of Tekuo.

The main power in this region is Öklan, which lies due north of Mohai. Öklan became involved in the politics of northern Aheku during the early modern era, when it attempted to capture territory in the area.

Öklan is a large nation, but smaller than Heiko. Its people, the Öklane, speak a language that is also called Öklane. It has Subject-Object-Verb word order and looks and sounds rather like Finnish. It may be recognised by its umlauted vowels ä, ö, ü and its double letters aa, tt, etc.

Yanar Bateng

Yanar Bateng is a loose confederation of states in the north-east of the continent of Thoriti. It lies across the ocean, thousands of miles to the west of Aheku. It is peopled with Utai, the third sapient species of Tekuo.

Once contact was established, its people, the Bateng, became firm allies of Mohai. Their confederation has over a dozen local languages, plus a semi-artificial national language called Loa Bateng. This is another Subject-Object-Verb language, but it is constructed very differently to Öklane. It looks and sounds rather like Indonesian.

Taking stock

This blog is now some nineteen months old. During this time, content and appearance have been unusually stable by my standards and until recently there has been a regular updating.

I took time off in the Spring for a period of political activity. That has now finished and I have come back to the blog following another period of reflection on content and presentation.

My attempts to produce a set of sound changes from a proto-language have suffered setbacks, but the project has emerged stronger for them. I can now see what a couple of Lemohai’s sister languages will look like.

Continue reading “Taking stock”

Simplifying the site

This post is the counterpart to the previous wherein I outlined the changes I have made to the concept of my study area. This post states what I am doing to content posts and subject metadata to realise the changes to the scenario.

As luck would have it, not much change is required on the site. I will now list all the posts, categories and tags I need to alter. I will update this post to record when changes are made.

Continue reading “Simplifying the site”

Simplifying the scenario

This post brings together my current thoughts on the overall scenario discussed on mohai.conlang.org.

There needs to be a plausible number of peoples and languages in the study area. I mostly have this now. The site looks at the north coast of the continent of Aheku and focuses on the island of Mohai. The timeline post notes the existence of Etsuri and Pekau, mainland states speaking languages from the same Dahu language family as Lemohai. Other unnamed Dahu states are hinted at.

The existence of Heiko is well-documented. This is Mohai’s main rival for power within its culture sphere. Heitak speaks a language from the Kemba family and the existence of other Kemba language states is hinted at.

Continue reading “Simplifying the scenario”

More previous

I’m pleased to report that I have found four more old files and added them to my Previous page, a list of old projects from before the Mohai scenario.

There’s two new language files been added and two new sports files. The language files are sketch grammars of Suomina (a Finno-Latin hybrid) and Xelhara a moderately head-marking language from the Lesdeka scenario. These flesh-out the brief descriptions of those languages already on the page.

As to sport, I’ve found the oldest version of Yhebano. Yhebano was a ball-handling team game and ancestor to the Mohaian sport of Hebanon. I’ve added a description of the rules and history of the game plus a set of results from the league I once ran.

You can check this all out following the link above.

 

Who were the Proto-Dahu-Kemba?

The ancient people now known as the Proto-Dahu-Kemba (or just PDK) were a race of Ikhe who lived on the coast in the north-east of the continent of Aheku. Archaeology tell us that they remained in this area until around OH -1652 (-1500 BC in our world).

Evidence from this date on indicates a migration to the west along the coast. We know from the speed of their movement and its narrow pathway that this was not a gradual spreading west, but a conscious migration. The speed of their travel suggests movement was partly by land and partly by sea. We do not know however what motivated the move.

We know the Proto-Dahu-Kemba had boats, including outrigger canoes and katamarans. They also had good navigation skills. It is thought that katamarans were used to transport goods and passengers and outriggers as scouts and protectors of the larger vessels.

Continue reading “Who were the Proto-Dahu-Kemba?”

Old Lemohai-Letsuri : a linguistic overview

Modern Lemohai is descended from Old Lemohai-Letsuri (OLL), a language spoken on the island of Mohai and in Etsuri, the nearest part of mainland Aheku. OLL was in turn descended from Proto-Dahu.

The early Dahu were a race of Ikhe, living in the north-east of Aheku. They then began a westward trek along the north coast. Archaeological evidence suggests the trek began around OH -1652 (-1500 BC in our calendar).

Some Dahu tribes reached the northernmost peninsula of Aheku around OH -116X (800 BC). By then, Proto-Dahu had already split into several daughter languages. This group called their new home Etsuri. They called themselves Rohetsuri and their  language Letsuri.

Archaeology suggests that the Rohetsuri began to colonise Mohai. about a gross and a half of years later, around OH -1064 (650 BC). Hence the language is known today as Old Lemohai-Letsuri. These dates are confirmed and explained in the timeline.

Continue reading “Old Lemohai-Letsuri : a linguistic overview”

Previously …

Readers may have noticed that I have added a new page to the site. The new page is titled Previous and is a record of the conlangs I created before the start of the Mohai project. Some of these have made it into the Mohai project. Files about a couple of earlier languages have also been embedded in the page. Why not take a closer look?

Time for a timeline (1)

Before we go much further, I think it’s time for an overview of the main linguistic, religious and political  developments in the study area. The three are very much intertwined. Other topics will get their own timelines when the need arises.

Dates for events are given below in the Zayedin calendar. They are expressed as years before or after the Proclamation of the Faith in 1154. This is Year Zero. It inaugurates Omun Zeikan, the Age of Faith. Earlier dates are expressed negatively. These belong to Omun Hemwan, the Age of Error.

The calendar counts in Base 12, represented here by Arabic numerals, plus X for ten and E for eleven. Unlike our calendar, it measures elapsed years not current ones.

Continue reading “Time for a timeline (1)”