Proto-Maritime : a linguistic overview

The Proto-Maritime language, the ancestor of the Maritime language family, was spoken by the Proto-Maritime people who lived on the islands of Mohai and Pheku off the north-east coast of Aheku.

The language arose as a result of the mixing of two cultures in the years after Omu Hemwan -186X (equivalent to around 1500 B.C. in Earth terms, or 3,500 years ago). Until OH -186X, the islands were the sole preserve of two groups of the Yelé people.

That year saw the beginning of a mass migration to the islands by a group of invaders from the south, known as the Suliq. Over time, the Suliq and the Yelé  on Mohai and Pheku merged and developed a culture and language quite distinct from the Yelé cultures of the mainland.

What the newly merged people called themselves and their language is unknown, but modern scholars refer to them as Proto-Maritime. The PM people kept no written records, so their language is known to us only through reconstruction.

Nevertheless, a vocabulary of 1500 words can be reconstructed with some confidence. It consists mostly of words related to everyday activities, nature, sailing and agriculture.

Number vocabulary is of particular note. PM counted in base 6, though all its modern descendants use base 12. Base 12 was an invention of mathematicians at the Kuna imperial court, during in the Classical Age. It grafted easily onto Base 6.

Like its descendants, Proto-Maritime displayed accusative-secundative alignment. Unlike its descendants, it had a single genitive case and lacked classifiers.

PM was characterised by its velar and uvular consonants and moderately complex syllable patterns.

As Proto-Maritime was a contact language it had little in the way of agglutination or inflexion. Grammatical relations were expressed by word order and vocabulary.

Mood and aspect were expressed with adverbs and co-verbs. Possession was shown by placing two nouns together. Singular, paucal and plural number were expressed  with particles. There were formal and informal pronouns. Derivational morphology existed, but was less extensive than in later Maritime languages.

PM was known to favour Subject-Verb-Object word order in sentences and to put the noun first in noun phrases. Variant word orders cannot be reconstructed with any confidence, though no doubt some existed.

Looking further  back, some linguists now think that many of the languages of North-East Aheku can be traced  Proto-East-Aheku. To these linguists PEA is the ancestor of Suliq, along with the Yelé languages like Senduri, Transmontane languages such as Loa Bateng and Pamak, and Bangwa languages like Moawapa.

As yet, the PEA hypothesis remains highly conjectural. Many of the features it purports to explain can also be explained by long-term areal contact between languages. It is therefore not covered on this site.

The descendants of Proto-Maritime may be divided into two groups: Northern and Southern Maritime. These are descended respectively from Old Lemohai and Old Lepheku. By the classical era, the Proto-Maritime culture had spread to the Tepi Peninsula and gone on to conquer much of the coastal plain of North-East Aheku.

A number of distinct Maritime languages emerged during the classical era. Five have survived into the modern era. There are now three Northern Maritime languages: Lemohai, Lekuna and Letepi. There are also two Southern ones: Lepheku and Lehekon.

Author: David Johnson

Conlanger, writer and activist.

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  1. This post was first published in August 2017. It was substantially revised and republished in September 2018 to reflect the new scenario. It was edited again in March 2019 to reflect a fuller, richer understanding of the new scenario.

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